The constitution has been called a hybrid of theocratic and democratic elements. About two thirds of the iranian people speak farsi or some persian dialect and one fifth a turkish dialect called azari. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran qanuni asasiyi jomhuiriyi islkmiyi iran has replaced irans first constitution. The adoption of the new constitution was the second major development after the seizure of power by the revolutionary forces in tehran on february 11. Pdf foreign policy of iran after islamic revolution. The supreme national security council snsc is an institution founded in the course of the revision of the constitution of the islamic republic of iran.
Inspired by article 50 of its constitution, the islamic republic of iran is strongly bound to protect the environment for present and future generations. Also, in developed countries, the growth rate is declining due to the maturity of ecommerce. The constitution requires that the taking of foreign aid be approved by the parliament. All laws and regulations, including the constitution itself, must be based on islamic criteria. A total of 11 359 detected tuberculosis cases were reported in 20, of which 6112 were new sputum smearpositive cases 4. Bani dugal, principal representative of the bahai international community at the united nations, on 6 september 2016, in a letter addressed to the president. The first major demonstrations with the intent to overthrow the shah mohammad reza pahlavi began in january 1978, with a new, islambased, theocratic constitution being approved in december 1979, ending the monarchy.
Outwardly, with a swiftly expanding economy and a rapidly modernizing infrastructure, everything was going well in iran. The preamble describes the history of the islamic revolution and the ideological principles of the constitution. To participate in the international effort to mitigate global climate change, iran had signed the united. The civil code of the islamic republic of iran refworld.
At the head of both the state and oversight institutions is a ranking cleric known as the rahbar, or. Imam khomeini declaration of the islamic republic of iran. Acceptable descriptions of a source of political legitimacy include the following. Islamic republic of iran, the supreme national security.
The constitution of the islamic republic of iran sets forth the cultural, social, political and economic institutions of the people of iran, based on islamic principles. Irans human rights record remained cause for great concern in 2014. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran wikipedia. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran wikiquote. This aspiration was exemplified by the nature of the great islamic. The country, which stands on the high iranian plateau, contains diverse ethnic, linguistic, and tribal groups.
His is the responsibility for implementing the constitution and acting as the head of the executive, except in matters directly concerned with. Iran islamic republic ofs constitution of 1979 with. Iran islamic republic ofs constitution of 1979 with amendments. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran, setting forth as it does the political, social, cultural, and economic institutions and their relations. The form of government of iran is that of an islamic republic, endorsed by the people of iran on the basis of their longstanding belief in the sovereignty of truth and quranic justice, in the referendum of farvardin 9 and 10 in the year 58 of the solar islamic calendar, corresponding to jamadi alawwal 1 and 2 in the year 99 of. The shah fled iran in january 1979 after large strikes and demonstrations. Pdf constitutional rights and liberties in the islamic republic. While articles one and two vest sovereignty in god, article six mandates popular elections for the presidency and the majlis, or parliament. Iran simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Article 9 treaty stipulations which have been, in accordance with the constitutional. Chapter ix the executive power section one the presidency.
The constitution of 1906 was set aside, and iran became an islamic republic led by ayatollah khomeini. Article 26 and 27 of the iranian constitution both stipulate that groups may be formed. The islamic republic of iran was created shortly after the islamic revolution. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society based on islamic principles and norms, which.
Constitution of the islamic republic of iran financial disclosure. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran unlv faculty sites. The slowdown was primarily due to international sanctions and lower oil prices, which constrained private consumption, held back foreign investment and dampened exports. Constitution of the islamic republic encyclopaedia. Islamic republic, to bring about a new political system, that of the islamic republic. Law, concluded between the iranian government and other government. The form of government of iran is that of an islamic republic, endorsed by the people of iran on the basis of their longstanding belief in the sovereignty of truth and quranic justice, in the referendum of farvardin 9 and 10 in the year 58 of the solar islamic calendar, corresponding to jamadi alawwal 1 and 2 in the year 99 of the lunar islamic. Constitution has been called a hybrid of theocratic and democratic elements. Islamic republic of iran 9 tuberculosis in 20, the tuberculosisrelated mortality rate was estimated at 3. But in little more than a generation, iran had changed from a traditional, conservative, and rural society to one that was industrial, modern, and urban. Government of the islamic republic of iran wikipedia. Iran is the eighteenth largest country in the world.
The islamic republic of iran iran is an islamic country, but not an arab country. Article 1 after the office of leadership, the president is the highest official in the country. In the international context, iran is finding itself isolated. The new theocratic government structure was complex and included a mixture of elected and unelected officials. The islamic republic of iran is located in southwest asia, bordering in the south with persian gulf and oman sea and from the north with the caspian sea. Iran officially the islamic republic of iran persian. It seems giventhat the increase in mobile broadband penetration 3g and 4g, as well as rising bandwidth, growth rates for the country are much higher than expected. It shares borders with afghanistan, armenia, azerbaijan, iraq, pakistan, turkey, and turkmenistan tehran is the capital and biggest city. Max planck unyb 2009 378 justify breaches of internationally recognised human rights standards by references to islamic law. This is a nice, compact edition of the constitution of the islamic republic of iran as laid out immediately after the revolution.
The khomeini regime unveiled a draft constitution on june 18. He thus provides the context for the dramatic debate between reformists and traditionalists in iran. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society based on islamic principles and norms, which represent an honest aspiration of the islamic ummah. The treatment success rate for new and relapsed cases. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran, setting forth as it does the political, social, cultural, and economic institutions and their relations that are to exist in society, must now provide for the consolidation of the foundations of islamic government, and propose the plan of a new system of government to be erected on the ruins of. The war on terror has had significant repercussions for the islamic republic of iran in both international and domestic arenas. Further, the islamic republic of iran is strongly committed to addressing global climate change issues, and is a signatory june 14, 1992 to the u. The islamic republic of iran has taken no action to ensure that this. Iran is a unitary islamic republic with one legislative house. The leader issues an edict to the president after consultation with the nations exigency council stipulating the amendments or additions to be made by the council for revision of the constitution which. The first years of the islamic republic were stormy and violent. The sense that in both agriculture and industry too much had been.
Civil rights in the islamic republic of iran iran press. Constitution in english alavi and associates, legal counsels, islamic republic of iran, 45 p. Most of the people had opposed the shah, but they did not agree on the kind of society iran should become. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran is a declaration of the social, cultural, political, and economic foundations of the iranian society based on islamic. Economic growth in the islamic republic of iran decelerated to only 0. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran sets forth the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society on the basis of islamic principles and norms, which represent the earnest aspiration of the islamic umma global muslim community.
Now the constitution of the islamic republic, as the announcement of the structure and. There is, though, a very laughable introduction to the constitution written by the translator at the beginning of the text. Khomeini proclaimed the establishment of the islamic republic of iran on april 1, 1979. On april 1, 1979, the kingdom of iran became the islamic republic of iran after a national referendum. Islamic republic of iran national report for central asian flyway meeting 10 june 2005, new delhi, india a. Pdf this study is aimed at analyzing aspects of individual rights and liberties in theocratic systems by examining the iranian constitution as a case. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran advances the cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of iranian society based on islamic principles and. This aspiration was exemplified by the nature of the great islamic revolution of iran, and by the course of the. Iran islamic republic of constitution of the islamic. Table of contents this table of contents does not form part of the act but consists of headings given in the course of the text chapter i. Revision of the constitution of the islamic republic of iran, whenever needed by the circumstances, will be done in the following manner.
Godallah divine revelation divine laws religious texts sovereigntytruth of koran supreme leader islamic revolution charismatic leadership of khomeini people of iran. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 december 1979, and went into force replacing the constitution of 1906. Thus article 11 of the constitution, citing quranic verse, declares. Constitution of the islamic republic of iran wikisource. The countrys 1979 constitution put into place a mixed system of government, in which the executive, parliament, and judiciary are overseen by several bodies dominated by the clergy. At this time, the constitution of the islamic republic of iran, as an articulation of the political, social, cultural, and economic relations and institutions of the society, was to open the way for af. The supplement motammem to the constitution qanune asasi, lit. The islamic republic of iran, nevertheless, explicitly aims to support and lead the entire muslim world including both sunnis and shiis. Iran grants a right to work, extensive welfare rights, and a right to fruits of business. On tuesday october 8, 20, around 50 members of the nabi akram brigade of the revolutionary guards raided a peaceful, private birthday function, in arg hall, a reception hall in a suburb of the city of kermanshah in western iran. Aside from substituting a strong president, on the gaullist model, for the monarchy, the constitution did not differ markedly from the 1906 constitution and did not give the clerics an important. General definitions and principles sections 16 chapter ii. While articles one and two vest sovereignty in god, article six mandates popular elections for the presidency and the.
Now the constitution of the islamic republic, as the announcement of the structure and political, social, cultural and economic relationships within society, must guide the way towards the consolidation of the foundations of islamic government, and produce the design for a new order of government in substitution for the old idolatrous order. Islamic republic of iran world health organization. The head of state, ayatollah ali khamenei, is the supreme leader of the. The relation between international law, islamic law and. The constitution of the islamic republic of iran proclaims the twelver shii jaafari school of islam to be the official religion of the country. Although president rouhani pledged his support for greater social equality and justice for all iranians there was little. Iran islamic republic ofs constitution of 1979 with amendments through 1989. The constitution of islamic republic of iran iran chamber society. The snsc has been established with an aim to watch over the islamic revolution and safeguard the iris national interests as well as its sovereignty and territorial integrity. Iran was the core of the ancient empire that was known as persia until 1935.
With the support of gef funding, authorities in tehran will assess measures, including efficient pricing. Asghar schirazi chronicles and analyzes political life in iran since the revolution, showing the gradual transformation of the state from intended theocracy and republic to a hierocracy in which islam and the sharia play a subordinate role. Islamic republic of iran noun the noun islamic republic of iran has 1 sense 1. Iran ex clusively refers to islamic law in the interpretation of the shiite gafari school of law,12 the religion of the majority of the iranian people and the official creed of the iranian state. Islamic republic, took a final and categorical decision to set up an exalted new republican and islamic order, and affirmed the islamic republic by a majority vote of 98. The translation is very readable, and is a fine piece of scholarship. Ratified 24 october 1979 and amended to 28 july 1989.762 310 518 1286 423 907 805 964 54 563 1572 496 142 1238 1396 612 555 462 870 366 1307 784 1272 180 101 529 1147 78 530 1474 1277 867 366